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News Briefs II

New Office Economy' Creates High Demand for Managers

The Washington Post

The re-engineering of American business practices has created a demand for managers. In the health care industry, for example, one of the hottest job specialties is for the people who review health-care claims and monitor the performance of doctors.

"They're the people in the [Health Maintainance Organization] who are kicking out the doctors," said Tony Carnevale, a labor economist at Educational Testing Service. "What's really happening, this cadre of managerial workers is re-engineering the rest of us."

As fewer people work directly manufacturing goods, Carnevale said, more are employed selling them, marketing them or inventing new ways to use them. "They don't manage people so much; they manage processes, they manage client relationships," he said.

A recent ETS study that Carnevale co-authored looked at where people were working in the economy, as opposed to what they were doing, and found that a "new office economy" had supplanted the manufacturing economy, with a small percentage of white-collar workers managing the work of the manufacturing, construction and natural resources sectors.

Other economists say this is because of a centuries-old transition from an economy in which people worked with their hands on farms or in factories to an economy based more on services and reliant on an educated work force and technology.

Study Calls High School's Condom Program a Success

Los angeles times
Los Angeles

A free condom program at a Los Angeles County high school has increased sexual safety without any corresponding increase in sexual activity, according to a new study being reported Tuesday by researchers at the RAND Corp.

The percentage of sexually experienced males using a condom each time they had intercourse rose by a third, from 37 percent to 50 percent, at the unnamed high school, according to a report in the journal Family Planning Perspectives.

But, rebutting the fears of condom distribution critics, the study found that the number of males and females who had ever had sex remained constant at 55 percent and 46 percent, respectively.

"This is just one study in one school district but it is very encouraging," said Dr. Mark A. Schuster, a senior researcher at Santa Monica-based RAND and a pediatrician at UCLA. A study in New York recently obtained similar results, he noted. "It looks like these programs really can have the desired effect."

A condom distribution program was begun in 1992 in high schools in the school district and in the nearby Culver City and Santa Monica districts. Schuster and his colleagues conducted an anonymous survey of the students about their sexual practices before the distribution began and one year after it started.

The percentage of males who reported using a condom at first intercourse grew from 46 percent to 56 percent, while for those who had only recently initiated intercourse, the number rose from 65 percent to 80 percent.