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reagan calls for 'new realism' in peace talks

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By Thomas T. Huang

President Reagan spoke of a "new realism" for peace before a joint session of Congress upon his return from Geneva last night. He and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev had a few hours earlier concluded their two-day summit meeting in Switzerland.

Under stiff winds, a helicopter flew Reagan from Andrews Air Force Base to the well-lit eastern front of the Capitol Building, where a standing-room-only congressional crowd awaited him.

Reagan believed that the summit was constructive and enabled the two sides to gain a better mu-<>

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tual understanding. The two leaders planned more Soviet-American meetings in the near future. Gorbachev agreed to visit the United States next year, while Reagan will make a trip to Moscow in 1987.

But Soviet and American officials cautioned that "profound differences" still separate the two governments on arms control and other issues. A reporter for the NBC News Network put the summit in perspective: "Reagan had no dramatic new announcements. Real progress can only be judged in the months ahead ... Nobody thought that years of dispute<>

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would be resolved in two days."

In other commentary, Sen. Richard G. Lugar, R-Ind., said the summit "significantly advanced the cause of world peace," but Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., said that nothing has changed "the fact of the nuclear arms race."

The United States will not "pursue cosmetic improvements or an illusory d'etente," Reagan maintained.

Under a "real peace," Reagan said, the United States and the Soviet Union must understand that "quick fixes do not solve big problems." Instead, the two nations must work to reduce distrust with deeds and not words alone.

The two leaders had devoted five hours to a private, one-on-one session -- what Reagan labeled a "fireside summit." Reagan found Gorbachev to be an "energetic defender" of Soviet ideology, as well as an effective speaker and good listener.

He warned, however, that the United States cannot afford to believe that the two different Soviet and American ideologies will ever change. Instead, the two nations must work to keep their competition peaceful.

O+ Arms control: The two leaders called for faster negotiations on a possible 50 percent cut in appropriate categories of the nuclear arsenal. Talks will resume on the elimination of intermediate-range missiles in Europe. The two nations will also combat the proliferation of nuclear and chemical weapons.

O+ SDI: Reagan told Gorbachev that SDI is intended to protect all nations from nuclear war. Gorbachev protested that SDI would enable the United States to<>

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put offensive weapons into space. Reagan claimed that SDI research would only lead to non-nuclear defense systems that threaten missiles, not people. He proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union open their laboratories doing research in SDI to each other's inspection.

Reagan said if future research "reveals that SDI is possible, we propose that all nations together replace their strategic ballistic missiles with SDI."

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O+ Regional conflict: The two leaders discussed the regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Nicaragua, Ethiopia, Cambodia, and Angola.

O+ Cultural exchanges: The two governments will establish more cultural exchanges and people-to-people contacts, such as youth exchanges, to "break down stereotypes, build friendships and find an alternative to propaganda," the president said.