Chapter Sixteen

                   Temporary Entry for Business Persons



Article 1601: General Principles

     Further to Article 102 (Objectives), the provisions of this
Chapter reflect the preferential trading relationship between the
Parties, the desirability of facilitating temporary entry on a
reciprocal basis and of establishing transparent criteria and
procedures for temporary entry, and the need to ensure border
security and to protect the domestic labor force and permanent
employment in their respective territories.


Article 1602: General Obligations

1.   Each Party shall apply its measures relating to the
provisions of this Chapter in accordance with Article 1601, and
in particular, shall apply expeditiously such measures so as to
avoid unduly impairing or delaying trade in goods or services or
conduct of investment activities under this Agreement.

2.   The Parties shall endeavor to develop and adopt common
criteria, definitions and interpretations for the implementation
of this Chapter.


Article 1603: Grant of Temporary Entry 

1.   Each Party shall grant, in accordance with this Chapter,
including Annex 1603, temporary entry to business persons who are
otherwise qualified for entry under applicable measures relating
to public health and safety and national security.

2.   A Party may refuse to issue an immigration document
authorizing employment to a business person where the temporary
entry of that person might affect adversely:

     (a) the settlement of any labor dispute that is in progress
 at the place or intended place of employment; or

     (b) the employment of any person who is involved in such
 dispute.

3.   When a Party refuses pursuant to paragraph 2 to issue an
immigration document authorizing employment, it shall:

     (a) inform in writing the business person of the reasons
 for the refusal; and 

     (b) promptly notify in writing the Party whose business
 person has been refused entry of the reasons for the
 refusal.

4.   Each Party shall limit any fees for processing applications
for temporary entry of business persons to the approximate cost
of services rendered.


Article 1604: Provision of Information

1.   Further to Article 1802 (Publication), each Party shall:

     (a) provide to the other Parties such materials as will
 enable them to become acquainted with its measures
 relating to the provisions of this Chapter; and

     (b) not later than one year after the date of entry into
 force of this Agreement, prepare, publish and make
 available in its own territory, and in the territories
 of the other Parties, explanatory material in a
 consolidated document regarding the requirements for
 temporary entry under this Chapter in such a manner as
 to enable business persons of the other Parties to
 become acquainted with them.

2.   Subject to Annex 1604.2, each Party shall collect and
maintain, and make available to the other Parties in accordance
with its domestic law, data respecting the granting of temporary
entry under this Chapter to business persons of the other Parties
who have been issued immigration documentation, including that
specific to each occupation, profession or activity.  


Article 1605: Working Group

1.   The Parties hereby establish a Temporary Entry Working
Group, comprising representatives of each Party, including
immigration officials.  

2.   The Working Group shall meet at least once a year to
consider:

     (a) the implementation and administration of this
 Chapter; 

     (b) the development of measures to further facilitate
 temporary entry of business persons on a reciprocal
 basis; 

     (c) the waiving of labor certification tests or procedures
 of similar effect for spouses of business persons who
 have been granted temporary entry for more than one
 year under Sections B, C, or D of Annex 1603; and

     (d) proposed modifications of or additions to this
 Chapter.


Article 1606: Dispute Settlement

     A Party may not initiate proceedings under Article 2007
regarding a refusal to grant temporary entry under this Chapter
or a particular case arising under Article 1602(1) unless:

     (a) the matter involves a pattern of practice; and

     (b) the business person has exhausted available
 administrative remedies regarding the particular
 matter, provided that such remedies shall be deemed to
 be exhausted if a final determination in the matter has
 not been issued by the competent authority within one
 year of the institution of an administrative
 proceeding, and the failure to issue a determination is
 not attributable to delay caused by the business
 person.


Article 1607: Relation to Other Chapters

     Except for Chapter One (Objectives), Chapter Two (General
Definitions), Chapter Twenty (Institutional Arrangements and
Dispute Settlement), Chapter Twenty-Two (Final Provisions) and
Articles 1801 through 1804, no provision of any other Chapter
shall impose any obligation upon a Party regarding its
immigration measures.


Article 1608: Definitions

For purposes of this Chapter:

business person means a citizen of a Party who is engaged in the
trade in goods, the provision of services or the conduct of
investment activities; 

citizen means "citizen" as defined in Annex 1608;

existing means "existing" as defined in Annex 1608; and

temporary entry means entry into the territory of a Party by a
business person of another Party without the intent to establish
permanent residence.

=============================================================================
                                ANNEX 1603

                   Temporary Entry for Business Persons


Section A - Business Visitors

1.   Each Party shall grant temporary entry to a business person
seeking to engage in a business activity set out in Schedule I, 
without requiring that person to obtain an employment
authorization, provided that the business person otherwise
complies with existing immigration measures applicable to
temporary entry, upon presentation of:

     (a) proof of citizenship of a Party;

     (b) documentation demonstrating that the business person
 will be so engaged and describing the purpose of entry;
 and

     (c) evidence demonstrating that the proposed business
 activity is international in scope and that the
 business person is not seeking to enter the local labor
 market.

2.   Each Party shall provide that a business person may satisfy
the requirements of paragraph 1(c) by demonstrating that:

     (a) the primary source of remuneration for the proposed
 business activity is outside the territory of the Party
 granting temporary entry; and

     (b) the business person's principal place of business and
 the actual place of accrual of profits, at least
 predominantly, remain outside such territory.  A Party
 shall normally accept an oral declaration as to the
 principal place of business and the actual place of
 accrual of profits.  If the Party requires further
 proof, it shall normally consider a letter from the
 employer attesting to these matters as sufficient
 proof.

3.   Each Party shall grant temporary entry to a business person
seeking to engage in a business activity other than those set out
in Schedule I, without requiring that person to obtain an
employment authorization, on a basis no less favorable than that
provided under the existing provisions of the measure set out in
Appendix 1603.A, provided that the business person otherwise
complies with existing immigration measures applicable to
temporary entry.

4.   No Party shall:

     (a) as a condition for temporary entry under paragraphs 1
 or 3, require prior approval procedures, petitions,
 labor certification tests, or other procedures of
 similar effect; or

     (b) impose or maintain any numerical restriction relating
 to temporary entry under paragraphs 1 or 3.

5.   Notwithstanding paragraph 4, a Party may require a business
person seeking temporary entry under this Part to obtain a visa
or its equivalent prior to entry.  Before imposing a visa
requirement, such Party shall consult with a Party whose business
persons would be affected with a view to avoiding the imposition
of the requirement.  With respect to an existing visa
requirement, a Party shall, at the request of a Party whose
business persons are subject to the requirement, consult with
that Party with a view to its removal.


Section B - Traders and Investors

1.   Each Party shall grant temporary entry and provide
confirming documentation to a business person seeking to:

     (a) carry on substantial trade in goods or services
 principally between the territory of the Party of which
 the business person is a citizen and the territory of
 the Party into which entry is sought; or

     (b) establish, develop, administer or provide advice or key
 technical services to the operation of an investment to
 which the business person or the business person's
 enterprise has committed, or is in the process of
 committing, a substantial amount of capital, in a
 capacity that is supervisory, executive or involves
 essential skills, 

provided that the business person otherwise complies with
existing immigration measures applicable to temporary entry.

2.   No Party shall:

     (a) as a condition for temporary entry under paragraph 1,
 require labor certification tests or other procedures
 of similar effect; or

     (b) impose or maintain any numerical restriction relating
 to temporary entry under paragraph 1.

3.   Notwithstanding paragraph 2, a Party may require a business
person seeking temporary entry under this Part to obtain a visa
or its equivalent prior to entry.  


Section C - Intra-Company Transferees

1.   Each Party shall grant temporary entry and provide
confirming documentation to a business person employed by an
enterprise who seeks to render services to that enterprise or a
subsidiary or affiliate thereof, in a capacity that is
managerial, executive, or involves specialized knowledge,
provided that the business person otherwise complies with
existing immigration measures applicable to temporary entry.  A
Party may require that such business person shall have been
employed continuously by such enterprise for one year within the
three-year period immediately preceding the date of the
application for admission.

2.   No Party shall:

     (a) as a condition for temporary entry under paragraph 1,
 require labor certification tests or other procedures
 of similar effect; or

     (b) impose or maintain any numerical restriction relating
 to temporary entry under paragraph 1.

3.   Notwithstanding paragraph 2, a Party may require a business
person seeking temporary entry under this Part to obtain a visa
or its equivalent prior to entry.  Before imposing a visa
requirement, such Party shall consult with a Party whose business
persons would be affected with a view to avoiding the imposition
of the requirement.  With respect to an existing visa
requirement, a Party shall, at the request of a Party whose
business persons are subject to the requirement, consult with
that Party with a view to its removal.


Section D - Professionals

1.   Each Party shall grant temporary entry and provide
confirming documentation to a business person seeking to engage
in a business activity at a professional level in a profession
set out in Schedule II, if the business person otherwise complies
with existing immigration measures applicable to temporary entry,
upon presentation of:

     (a) proof of citizenship of a Party; and 

     (b) documentation demonstrating that the business person
 will be so engaged and describing the purpose of entry.

2.   No Party shall:

     (a) as a condition for temporary entry under paragraph 1,
 require prior approval procedures, petitions, labor
 certification tests, or other procedures of similar
 effect; or

     (b) impose or maintain any numerical restriction relating
 to temporary entry under paragraph 1.

3.   Notwithstanding paragraph 2, a Party may require a business
person seeking temporary entry under this Part to obtain a visa
or its equivalent prior to entry.  Before imposing a visa
requirement, such Party shall consult with a Party whose business
persons would be affected with a view to avoiding the imposition
of the requirement.  With respect to an existing visa
requirement, a Party shall, upon the request of a Party whose
business persons are subject to the requirement, consult with
that Party with a view to its removal.

4.   Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, a Party may establish an
annual numerical limit, which shall be set out in Schedule III,
regarding temporary entry of business persons of another Party
seeking to engage in business activities at a professional level
in a profession set out in Schedule II, if the Parties concerned
have not agreed otherwise prior to the entry into force of this
Agreement for such Parties.  In establishing such a limit, such
Party shall consult with the other Party concerned.

5.   A Party establishing a numerical limit pursuant to paragraph
4, unless the Parties concerned agree otherwise:

     (a) shall, for each year after the first year after the
 date of entry into force of this Agreement, consider
 increasing the numerical limit set out in Schedule III
 by an amount to be established in consultation with the
 other Party concerned, taking into account the demand
 for temporary entry under this Part;

     (b) shall not apply its procedures established pursuant to
 paragraph 1 to the temporary entry of a business person
 subject to the numerical limit, but may require such 
 business person to comply with its other procedures
 applicable to the temporary entry of professionals; and

     (c) may, in consultation with the other Party concerned,
 grant temporary entry under paragraph 1 to a business
 person who practices in a profession where
 accreditation, licensing, and certification
 requirements are mutually recognized by such Parties.

6.   Nothing in paragraphs 4 or 5 shall be construed so as to
limit the ability of a business person to seek temporary entry
under a Party's applicable immigration measures relating to the
entry of professionals other than those adopted or maintained
pursuant to paragraph 1.

7.   Three years after a Party establishes a numerical limit
pursuant to paragraph 4, it shall consult with the other Party
concerned with a view to determining a date after which the limit
shall cease to apply.  
=============================================================================
                               ANNEX 1604.2

                         Provision of Information


     The obligations under Article 1604(2) shall take effect with
respect to Mexico one year after the date of entry into force of
this Agreement.
=============================================================================
                                ANNEX 1608

                      Country - Specific Definitions


For purposes of this Chapter:

citizen means, with respect to Mexico, a national or a citizen
according to the existing provisions of Articles 30 and 34,
respectively, of the Mexican Constitution; and

existing means, as between:

     (a) Canada and Mexico, and the United States and Mexico, in
 effect upon the date of entry into force of this
 Agreement; and

     (b) Canada and the United States, in effect on January 1,
 1989.
=============================================================================
                              Appendix 1603.A

                       Existing Immigration Measures



1.   In the case of Canada, the Immigration Act, R.S.C. 1985 c.I-
2, as amended, and subsection 19(1) of the Immigration
Regulations, 1978, as amended. 

2.   In the case of the United States, Section 101(a)(15)(B) of
the Immigration and Nationality Act, 1952, as amended. 

3.   In the case of Mexico, Chapter III of the Ley General de
Poblacion, 1974, as amended. 


=============================================================================
                                Schedule I


Research and Design

- Technical, scientific, and statistical researchers conducting
independent research, or research for an enterprise located in
the territory of another Party.


Growth, Manufacture and Production

- Harvester owner supervising a harvesting crew admitted under
applicable law.

- Purchasing and production management personnel conducting
commercial transactions for an enterprise located in the
territory of another Party.


Marketing

- Market researchers and analysts conducting independent research
or analysis, or research or analysis for an enterprise located in
the territory of another Party.

- Trade fair and promotional personnel attending a trade
convention.


Sales

- Sales representatives and agents taking orders or negotiating
contracts for goods or services for an enterprise located in the
territory of another Party but not delivering goods or providing
services.

- Buyers purchasing for an enterprise located in the territory of
another Party.


Distribution

- Transportation operators transporting goods or passengers to
the territory of a Party from the territory of another Party or
loading and transporting goods or passengers from the territory
of a Party to the territory of another Party, with no loading and
delivery within the territory of the Party into which entry is
sought of goods located in or passengers boarding in that
territory.

- With respect to temporary entry into the territory of the
United States, Canadian customs brokers performing brokerage
duties relating to the export of goods from the territory of the
United States to or through the territory of Canada; with respect
to temporary entry into the territory of Canada, United States
customs brokers performing brokerage duties relating to the
export of goods from the territory of Canada to or through the
territory of the United States.

- Customs brokers consulting regarding the facilitation of the
import or export of goods.


After-Sales Service

- Installers, repair and maintenance personnel, and supervisors,
possessing specialized knowledge essential to a seller's
contractual obligation, performing services or training workers
to perform such services, pursuant to a warranty or other service
contract incidental to the sale of commercial or industrial
equipment or machinery, including computer software, purchased
from an enterprise located outside the territory of the Party
into which temporary entry is sought, during the life of the
warranty or service agreement.


General Service

- Professionals engaging in a business activity at a professional
level in a profession set out in Schedule II. 

- Management and supervisory personnel engaging in a commercial
transaction for an enterprise located in the territory of another
Party.

- Financial services personnel (insurers, bankers or investment
brokers) engaging in commercial transactions for an enterprise
located in the territory of another Party.

- Public relations and advertising personnel consulting with
business associates, and attending or participating in
conventions.

- Tourism personnel (tour and travel agents, tour guides or tour
operators) attending or participating in conventions or
conducting a tour that has begun in the territory of another
Party.

- Tour bus operators entering the territory of a Party:

     (a) with a group of passengers on a bus tour that has begun
 in, and will return to, the territory of another Party;

     (b) to meet a group of passengers on a bus tour that will
 end, and the predominant portion of which will take
 place, in the territory of another Party; or

     (c) with a group of passengers on a bus tour to be unloaded
 in the territory of the Party into which temporary
 entry is sought, and returning with no passengers or
 reloading with such group for transportation to the
 territory of another Party.

- Translators or interpreters performing services as employees of
an enterprise located in the territory of another Party. 


Definitions

For purposes of this Schedule:

territory of another Party means the territory of a Party other
than the territory of the Party into which temporary entry is
sought;

tour bus operator means a natural person, including relief
personnel accompanying or following to join, necessary for the
operation of a tour bus for the duration of a trip; and

transportation operator means a natural person, other than a tour
bus operator, including relief personnel accompanying or
following to join, necessary for the operation of a vehicle for
the duration of a trip.
=============================================================================
                                Schedule II





PROFESSION



Accountant



Architect


Computer Systems Analyst





MINIMUM EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
AND ALTERNATIVE CREDENTIALS 

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or C.P.A., C.A.,
C.G.A., C.M.A.


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license
                       
Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or Post-Secondary
Diploma or Post-Secondary
Certificate, and three years
experience





Disaster Relief Insurance
Claims Adjuster (claims
adjuster employed by an
insurance company located in
the territory of a Party, or
an independent claims
adjuster)






Economist

Engineer


Forester


Graphic Designer



Hotel Manager






Industrial Designer



Interior Designer



Land Surveyor
Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree, and successful
completion of training in the
appropriate areas of insurance
adjustment pertaining to
disaster relief claims; or
three years of experience in
claims adjustment, and
successful completion of
training in the appropriate
areas of insurance adjustment
pertaining to disaster relief
claims 


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree 

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or Post-Secondary
Diploma or Post-Secondary
Certificate, and three years
experience 

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree in hotel/restaurant
management; or Post-Secondary
Diploma or Post-Secondary
Certificate in
hotel/restaurant management,
and three years experience in
hotel/restaurant management

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or Post-Secondary
Diploma or Post-Secondary
Certificate, and three years
experience





Landscape Architect


Lawyer (including Notary in
the Province of Quebec)


Librarian



Management Consultant







Mathematician 
(including Statistician)


MEDICAL/ALLIED PROFESSIONAL

Dentist




Dietitian
Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


LL.B., J.D., LL.L., B.C.L., or
Licenciatura Degree (five
years); or membership in a
state/provincial bar 

M.L.S. or B.L.S. (for which
another Baccalaureate or
Licenciatura Degree was a
prerequisite)

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or equivalent
professional experience as
established by statement, or
professional credential,
attesting to five years
experience as a management
consultant, or five years
experience in a field of
specialty related to the
consulting agreement

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree





D.D.S., D.M.D., Doctor en
Odontologia, or Doctor en
Cirugia Dental; or
state/provincial license

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license

=============================================================================

Medical Laboratory
Technologist (Canada)/Medical
Technologist (United States
and Mexico)


Nutritionist


Occupational Therapist



Pharmacist


Physician (teaching or
research only)


Physiotherapist/Physical
Therapist


Psychologist


Recreational Therapist

Registered Nurse


Veterinarian 






Research Assistant 
(Working in a post-secondary

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or Post-Secondary
Diploma or Post-Secondary
Certificate, and three years
experience


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license

M.D. or Doctor en Medicina; or
state/provincial license

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or state/provincial
license

State/provincial license or
Licenciatura Degree

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree

State/provincial license or
Licenciatura Degree

D.V.M., D.M.V., or Doctor en
Veterinaria; or
state/provincial license




Range Manager/ 
Range Conservationalist


Research Assistant
(Working in a post-secondary
educational institution)

Scientific
Technician/Technologist











SCIENTIST

Agriculturist (including
Agronomist)


Animal Breeder


Animal Scientist


Apiculturist



Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree



Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree



Possession of: (a) theoretical
knowledge of any of the
following disciplines: 
agricultural sciences,
astronomy, biology, chemistry,
engineering, forestry,
geology, geophysics,
meteorology or physics; and
(b) the ability to solve
practical problems in any of
such disciplines, or the
ability to apply principles of
any of such disciplines to
basic or applied research





Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree





Astronomer


Biochemist


Biologist


Chemist


Dairy Scientist


Entomologist


Epidemiologist


Geneticist


Geologist


Geochemist


Geophysicist (including
Oceanographer in Mexico and
the United States)

Horticulturist


Meteorologist


Pharmacologist
Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree






Pharmacologist


Physicist (including 
Oceanographer in Canada)

Plant Breeder


Poultry Scientist


Soil Scientist


Zoologist


Social Worker


Sylviculturist
(including Forestry
Specialist)


TEACHER

College


Seminary


University

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree





Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree



=============================================================================


Technical Publications Writer




Urban Planner 
(including Geographer)

Vocational Counsellor

Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree; or Post-Secondary
Diploma or Post-Secondary
Certificate, and three years
experience


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree


Baccalaureate or Licenciatura
Degree

=============================================================================

                               Schedule III


                         United States of America


1.   Commencing on the date of entry into force of this Agreement
as between the United States and Mexico, the United States shall
annually approve as many as 5,500 initial petitions of business
persons of Mexico seeking temporary entry under Section D of
Annex 1603 to engage in a business activity at a professional
level in a profession set out in Schedule II.

2.   For purposes of paragraph 1, the United States shall not
take into account:

     (a) the renewal of a period of temporary entry;

     (b) the entry of a spouse or children accompanying or
 following to join the principal business person;

     (c) an admission under Section 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of the
 Immigration and Nationality Act, 1952, as amended,
 including the worldwide numerical limit established by
 Section 214(g)(1)(A) of such Act; or

     (d) an admission under any other provision of Section
 101(a)(15) of such Act relating to the entry of
 professionals.

3.   Paragraphs 4 and 5 of Section D of Annex 1603 shall apply as
between the United States and Mexico for no longer than:

     (a) the period that such paragraphs or similar provisions
 may apply as between the United States and any other
 Party or non-Party; or

     (b) 10 years after the date of entry into force of this
 Agreement as between such Parties,

whichever period is shorter.